Anatomy high yield points

Posted by Gundepalli Bhanu Prakash on Thu, Feb 9, 2012  
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Anatomy High yield points

Sure shot points for any medical pg entrance


1 wrist drop (inability to extend the wrist and fingers) caused by damage to what nerve? radial nerve (posterior chord of BP)
2 this nerve supplies the flexors of the arm and is cutaneous in the forearm musculocutaneous nerve
3 most intrinsic hand muscles are supplied by what nerve? ulnar nerve
4 order of structures passing behind the medial malleolus (from ant to post) (anterior) tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, posterior tibial aa, flexor hallucis longus (TOM, DICK, AND HARRY)
5 CN from which chorda tympani originates CN VII
6 chorda tympani controls salivation from which glands? sublingual and submandibular
7 parotid is innervated by which nerve? glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
8 median nerve paralysis causes … ulnar deviation of the hand (unopposed flexor carpi ulnaris innervated by ulnar)
9 innervation of the interossei ulnar
10 ulnar nerve lesion causes … radial deviation of the hand (unopposed flexor carpi radialis innervated by radial)
11 radial nerve paralysis causes … inability to extend the hand against gravity ("wrist drop"), loss of triceps and brachioradialis reflexes
12 what causes cleft lips? failure of maxillary and medial nasal processes to fuse during development
13 occlusion of the gastroduodenal aa would cause … no change (rich supply from various sources
14 nerve that causes extension of the thumb radial
15 nerve which adducts the thumb ulnar
16 nerve that abducts, rotates, opposes, and flexes the thumb median
17 nerve that runs with the spermatic cord through the inguinal canals ilioinguinal
18 direct inguinal hernias are due to what defect? breakdown of transversus abdominalis aponeurosis and transversalis fascia
19 small bowel receives its blood supply from the … superior mesenteric aa.
20 what embryological defect puts an infant at risk for inguinal hernia? patent processus vaginalis
21 testicular histology shows many Leydig cells, few Sertoli cells, and absent germ cells; patient presents with gynecomastia and small testes Klinefelter's (46,XXY)
22 what nerve runs through the parotid gland? facial nerve
23 what nerve accompanies the superior laryngeal aa? internal branch of superior laryngeal nn
24 innervation of the superior laryngeal nn mucosa above the vocal folds
25 what is the ventral white commissure? crossing fibers of the spinothalamic tract
26 Cooper's ligaments connect… mammary glands to the dermis of overlying skin
27 alternative name for inguinal ligament Poupart's ligaments
28 multiple small openings in the depressed area of the nipple are … lactiferous ducts
29 # of lobes in every breast 10 to 15
30 derivatives of the uteric bud collecting ducts, calyces, renal pelvis
31 patients with verbal difficulties most likely have a lesion in which hemisphere? left
32 artery that supplies the distal lesser curvature of the stomach right gastric
33 movements mediated by the trapezius mm elevation of the acromion (upper fibers) and depression of the medial scapula (lower fibers)
34 on what day of embryonic life is the notochord formed? 17
35 during what week can a fetus move? 8 weeks gestation
36 the incision for a saphenous cutdown should be located …. anterior to the medial malleolus
37 the structure immediately medial to the insertion of the biceps (near the elbow) is … brachial aa
38 role of MIF in development suppression of paramesonephric ducts
39 the only mm that can elevate the eye in the abducted position is the … superior rectus
40 embyronic origin of the thyroid foramen cecum
41 the first pharyngeal pouch develops into … middle ear, eustacian tube
42 the second pharyngeal arch develops into … mm of face, styloid process of temporal bone
43 the third pharyngeal pouch develops into … thymus, inferior parathyroids
44 which mm lowers the jaw? lateral pterygoid
45 what CN(s) come(s) through the foramen ovale? What branch? V3
46 what CN(s) come(s) through the foramen rotundum? V2
47 what CN(s) come(s) through the superior orbital fissure? III, IV, V1, VI
48 which two CNs come through the internal acoustic meatus? VII, VIII
49 which three CNs come through the jugular foramen? XI, X, XI
50 which CN(s) come(s) through the cribriform plate? I
51 nerve that innervates all the thenar mm median
52 the medial aspects of the cerebral hemispheres are supplied by which aa? anterior cerebral
53 location of the AV node subendocardium of the interarterial septum
54 location of SA node wall of the right atrium
55 innervation of the stapedius facial (CN VII)
56 the heart begins to beat at what week of gestation? 4th
57 the heart is fully formed by what week of gestation? 6th
58 what muscle might avulse the lesser trochanter from the femur, resulting in fracture? psoas major
59 3 mm that insert into the greater trochanter of the femur gluteus minimus and medius, piriformis
60 most common form of ASD results from … failure of fusion of the septum primum and secundum 
61 type of epithelium contained in the distal esophagus nonkeratinized stratified squamous
62 the median nerve is formed by which cords of the brachial plexus? lateral and medial
63 the medial nerve runs between which two tendons on the anterior aspect of the forearm? palmaris longus and flexor carpi radialis
64 the smooth part of the right ventricule is derived from … bulbus cordis
65 the smooth part of the right atrium is derived from… sinus venosus
66 the truncus arteriosis develops into … the proximal pulm aa and ascending aorta
67 lesion results in inability to dorsiflex and inversion of the foot when relaxed common peroneal nerve lesion
68 A patient's tongue deviates toward the right. What mm and nerve are affected? right hypoglossal (CN XII); right genioglossus
69 what is the role of the hyoglossus mm? retracts the tongue
70 information carried by the dorsal column system of the spinal cord proprioception, discriminative touch, vibrat
71 pseudounipolar cells are derived from the … neural crest
72 Schwann cells are derived from the … neural crest
73 astrocytes and microglia are derived from the … neural tube
74 path of the superior sagittal sinus along the attachment of the falx cerebri
75 how does a mast cell look on EM? "scroll" inclusions (look like lamellar bodies), cell membrane irregularities, microvilli, evident nucleolus
76 "unhappy triad" medial meniscus, medial collateral ligament, and ACL tear
77 the sensory innervation of the posterior half of the external auditory meatus comes from …. auricular branch of the vagus (CN X)
78 sensory innervation of the anterior half of the external auditory meatus auriculotemporal nerve
79 abdominal viscera protrude through the anterior abdominal wall (not covered in skin, etc) when what fails to occur during embryogenesis? failure of fusion of the lateral body folds (4th wk)
80 failure of the yolk stalk to degenerate results in… Meckel's diverticulum
81 pain from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue is carried to the CNS by … V3
82 taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue is carried to the CNS by … VII
83 what is the role of CN IX in taste and pain sensation of the tongue? posterior 1/3 of the tongue (pain & taste)
84 the structure medial to a femoral hernia in a female patient lacunar ligament
85 indirect inguinal hernias pass just lateral to … inferior gastric aa
86 direct inguinal hernias pass just medial to … inferior gastric aa
87 anesthetic injected near the ischial spine will block which nerve? pudendal
88 what nerve runs just anterior to the anterior scalene mm? phrenic nn
89 brain structure involved with formation of memories hippocampus
90 the greater sciatic foramen is occupied by what mm? piriformis
91 what nn runs through the greater sciatic foramen just caudal to the piriformis? superior gluteal nerve (along with the aa and vv)
92 what nns run through the greater sciatic foramen just below the piriformis? pudendal & sciatic
93 the remnant of the embryological umbilical vein falciform ligament
94 in which part of the small intestine does a Meckel's diverticulum arise? ileum
95 neurons in the olfactory bulb synapse on which part of the brain? pyriform cortex
96 name the mm that causes internal rotation of the arm at the shoulder subscapularis
97 the inferior rectal nerve is a direct branch of the … pudendal nn.
98 innervation of the abductor pollicis longus median nn.
99 innervation of the adductor pollicis ulnar nn.
100 mostly unbrached vein existing on the medial side of the leg and continuing upward to meet with the femoral vein saphenous
101 what does the ansa cervicalis innervate? geniohyoid (pulls the hyoid bone anteriorly for swallowing)
102 the inferior mesenteric aa arises from the abdominal aorta directly posterior to what structure? third part of the duodenum
103 the superior mesenteric aa arises from the aorta directly posterior to what structure? neck of the pancreas
104 the ____ contains striated mm NOT under voluntary control esophagus
105 the foramen through which the saphenous vein passes to join the femoral vein fossa ovalis
106 mm that flexes the thigh at the hip psoas major
107 the fasciculus cuneatus carries what kind of fibers from where? proprioception, discriminative touch, vibration from the arms
108 the role of the sER steroid hormone synthesis and detox
109 decreased sensation over the first 3.5 digits of the hand indicates a lesion of … median nn.
110 what mm are supplied by the median nerve? opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, 1st 2 lumbricals, anterior forearm flexors
111 the extensor pollicis longus is supplied by the … (nn) radial nerve
112 backward movement of the jaw during chewing is due to what mm? temporalis
113 gap junctions contain ¦ connexons
114 tonofilaments are found in… hemidesmosomes and desmosomes
115 what type of collagen is found in the basal lamina? Type IV (under the floor)
116 the superior opthalamic vein drains into the … cavernous sinus
117 the sigmoid sinus drains into the … IJV
118 the posterior continuation of the cavernous sinus is the … petrosal sinus
119 three mm that flex the arm at the elbow biceps, brachioradialis, and brachialis
120 the median nerve passes through the two heads of what mm? pronator tere
121 the coracobrachialis is pierced by the … MC nerve
122 the flexor carpi ulnaris is pierced by the … ulnar nerve
123 the deep branch of the radial nerve pierces which mm? supinator mm
124 annular pancreas results from a failure in what part of normal development? failure of the ventral pancreatic bud to rotate around the second part of the duodenum
125 pain sensation from the upper part of the posterior pharynx is carred by the… glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
126 the cells that provide myelin in the CNS oligodendrocytes
127 to which nodes is a cancer of the descending colon most likely to metastasize? inferior mesenteric
128 the gastroepiploic lymph nodes drain … the greater curvature of the stomach
129 the superficial inguinal lymph nodes drain … rectum, vagina, and perineum
130 the internal iliac nodes drain … the bladder and male internal genitalia
131 the subpyloric nodes drain … the distal stomach, duodenum, and pancreas
132 upward traction on the upper limb may cause what brachial plexus injury? lower trunk (interossei and thumb problems)
133 two "ligaments" that separate the greater peritoneal sac from the lesser gastrohepatic, hepatoduodenal
134 claw hand is due to … ulnar nerve lesion
135 cord of the brachial plexus from which the ulnar nerve arises medial cord
136 cord of the brachial plexus from which the MC nerve arises lateral cord
137 obturator nerve innervates … mm of medial compartment of the thigh (adductors and gracilis)
138 is the lower trunk of the brachial plexus within the axillary sheath? no > formed in the neck and moves independently
139 hip abduction is mediated by what nerve? superior gluteal nerve
140 nn responsible for knee extension femoral nerve
151 nerves that supply sensation to the dorsal aspect of the hand radial (on the thumb side) and ulnar (on the pinkie side)
152 nerve that lies in the posterior tonsillar fossa CN IX
153 the muscles of mastication are derived from what pharyngeal arch? first
154 sensory innervation of the sole of the foot is by the …. posterior tibial nerve
155 nn that supplies the medial mm of the thigh obturator
156 the femoral nerve innervates … the mm of the anterior compartment of the thigh
157 the posterior compartment of the thigh is innervated by … sciatic nerve
158 the uterus develops from the … mesonephric ducts
159 the role of neural crest cells in the development of the heart invade the aorticopulmonary septum
160 retroperitoneal organs descending & ascending colon, duodenum, kidneys, adrenals 
161 brief pathway of auditory sensation spiral ganglion > CN VIII > dorsal/ventral cochlear nuclei of the medulla > superior olivary nuceli > lateral lemniscus > inferior colliculus of the midbrain > medial geniculate body of thalamus > auditory cortex
162 the superior colliculus is involved in …. eye movements
163 Erb's palsy results from a lesion of the … upper part of brachial plexus (C5, C6)
164 the facial vein drains into the … cavernous sinus
165 name three structures in the hepatoduodenal ligament common bile duct and hepatic vessels
166 how are the three structures of the hepatoduodenal ligament arranged? portal vein is posterior, bile duct is on right, hepatic aa on left
167 mm that elevates the soft palate levator palatini
168 innervation of the mm that elevates the soft palate CN X
169 when the uvula deviates toward the right, the most likely lesion is … left CN X
170 course of the axillary nerve surgical neck of the humerous 
171 innervation of the axillary nerve deltoid mm
172 a lesion of the axillary nerve would cause .. inability to raise the arm from the side
173 the posterior descending artery is a branch of the …. RCA
174 nerve in the posterior triangle of the neck accessory
175 the pancreas gets its arterial supply from … the celiac aa
176 the ductus deferens and the spermatic cord converge when … they pass through the internal inguinal ring
177 inability to read (alexia), with preservation of the ability to write (agraphia), is indicative of a lesion in the … left occipital cortex and splenium of CC
178 nerve that innervates the dorsum of the foot superficial peroneal
179 anesthesia of the medial surface of the leg suggests a lesion of the … saphenous nerve
180 when a female stands, where does fluid in the abdomen collect? rectouterine pouch (of Douglas
181 venous place in the body with pressure oscillations of 25/0 RA
182 venous place in the body with no pressure oscillations peripheral veins
183 cell bodies for Pacinian corpuscles reside in … DRG
184 depression of the mandible is affected by what nerves? mandibular and facial (digastric) (NOTE: First Aid says that the lateral pterygoid lowers the mandible…. You decide)
185 the cremasteric reflex is elicited via what nerve roots? L1, L2
186 a waddling (Trundelberg) gait is indicative of …lesion of the gluteus medius and minimus or the superior gluteal nerve
187 loss of the ability to climb stairs is indicative of … lesion of gluteus maximum or inferior gluteal nn
188 lesion of CN III would result in an eye that looks …. down and out
189 damage to Meyer's loop results in…. contralateral superior quadrantanopsia
190 the azygus vein drains the … posterior thoracic wall 
Posts 127 191 the azygus vein empties into the SVC
192 the paramesonephric ducts give rise to ¦ the upper vagina, cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes
193 the lower vagina develops from the …. urogenital sinus
194 what cell in the liver is derived from foregut endoderm? hepatocytes
195 nerve that accompanies the superior laryngeal aa superior laryngeal nerve (internal branch)
196 innervation of the superior laryngeal nn (internal branch) mucosa above the vocal folds
197 nn that provides sensory innervation to the laryngeal mucosa below the vocal folds recurrent laryngeal nerve
198 motor innervation to the cricothyroid superior laryngeal nerve (external branch)
199 what fascia encloses the thyroid gland? pretracheal
200 what is the best place to palpate the dorsalis pedis artery? on the dorsum of the foot, between the tendons of the extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus 

201 lymph from the medial side of the foot drains via … lymphatics near the saphenous vein into the inguinal nodes
202 lymph from the lateral side of the foot drains via … lymphatics near the short saphenous vein into the popliteal nodes
203 what is the gap between the two embryonic atria called? ostium primum
204 what fills the gap between the two embryonic atria? septum primum
205 when the septum primum meets with the ___, the ostium primum is closed endocardial cushions
206 failure of the septum primum to fuse with the cushions results in …. ostium primum-type ASD
207 the ostium secondum usually forms within the … septum primum
208 the results of failure to form the septum secundum fetal death (no hole between atria means no oxygenation for most of the fetus)
209 run through the development of the foramen ovale, etc. ostium primum closed by septum primum > ostium segundum forms > septum primum fuses with endocardial cushions > septum segundum develops
210 the valve of the foramen ovale is made up of … the septum ostium (the part that does not regress) 

211 does the septum segundum fuse with the endocardial cushions? no - only the septum primum does
212 the afferent arm of the corneal reflex CN V
213 the efferent arm of the corneal reflex CN VII
214 which nerve provides taste sensation over the anterior portion of the tongue? Facial VII
215 girl fracctures humerus through lateral epicondyle. What nerve might be damaged? radial
216 what type of nerve fibers innervate the radial dilator mm? only sympathetic postganglionic fibers
217 what is the status of the fetal heart once the arms, legs, and extremities are nearly fully formed? nearly fully formed, beating
218 from where does the levator veli palatini originate? petrous portion of the temporal bone
219 wrist drop is caused by damage to …. radial nerve
220 the lingula belongs to what lobe of the lung? left upper lobe
221 neonate with left-sided intestinal hermiation had a structural anomaly of the … pleuroperitoneal membrane (most likely)
222 decreased sensation over with posterior portion of the side of the tongue indicates a lesion of what nerve? CN IX
223 oocytes are derived from the … yolk sac
224 winged scapula results from lesions of what cervical nerves? C5-C7 (long thoracic nerve)
225 anterior horn motor neurons of the spinal cord are derived from the … basal plate
226 sympathetic plexus that provides pain sensation from the stomach celiac plexus
227 spinal tract that carries two-point touch, vibration, and proprioception dorsal columns
228 where (if anywhere) do the dorsal white columns cross? medullary pyramids
229 spinal tract that carried pain and temperature sensation spinothalamic tract
230 where (if anywhere) does the spinothalamic tract cross? lumbar region
231 where does the corticospinal tract cross? medullary pyramids
232 the smooth part of the right ventricle is derived from … bulbus cordis
233 what is located between the cells of the yolk sac and the cells of the cytotrophoblast in a 14-day blastocyst? extraembryonic mesoderm
234 the adult derivative of the ductus venosus ligamentum venosum
235 the ventromedial nucleus mediates what type of behavior? eating behavior (without it, we starve)
236 the transverse cervical ligament carries what aa? uterine
237 biological methylations are mediated by … SAM
238 the splenic aa is located in what ligament? splenorenal
239 what respiratory system component is derived from visceral mesoderm? endothelial cells
240 the artery supplying the anterior aspect of the interventricular septum runs in the … anterior interventricular sulcus (LAD)
241 the cystic aa is a branch of the … right hepatic
242 what nerve mediates the cremasteric reflex? genitofemoral
243 Schwann cells are derived from the … neural crest
244 what structure gives rise to the greater omentum? dorsal mesentery
245 from where is the spleen derived? embryonic dorsal mesentery
246 name two membranes that hold the ulna and radius together interosseous (big) and annular (small)
247 intention tremor of the ipsilateral extremity would result from a lesion of the … cerebellum
248 tremor that improves with purposeful movement indicates a lesion of the … basal ganglia
249 a lesion of the frontal eye field would cause … deviation of the eyes toward the lesion
250 the urachus is the remnant of the … allantois
251 the urachus connects … apex of bladder to umbilicus
252 branch of the axillary artery that forms an anastomosis with branches of the subclavian subscapular aa
253 hypothalamic nuclei involved with circadian rhythms suprachiasmatic nucleus
254 lymph from the scrotum drains into the … superficial inguinal nodes
255 the only laryngeal mm innervated by the superior laryngeal nn cricothyroid
256 most of the laryngeal mm are innervated by … recurrent laryngeal nerve
257 lies between the flexor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis median nerve
258 role of the pupillary sphincter muscle pupillary constriction
259 innervation of the pupillary sphincter mm parasympathetic
260 what mm dilates the pupil? radial dilator mm
261 the blood vessels that supply the skin are located in the … deep and superficial dermis (the epidermis does not have vessels)
262 what pores on the cell surface allow the passage of small molecules? gap junctions
263 muscle used to get up from a sitting position gluteus maximus
Spinal cord syndromes:

Result from incomplete spinal cord injuries.

The Central Cord syndrome is associated with greater loss of upper limb function compared to lower limbs.

The Brown-Séquard syndrome results from injury to one side with the spinal cord, causing weakness and loss of proprioception on the side of the injury and loss of pain and thermal sensation of the other side.

The Anterior Spinal syndrome results from injury to the anterior part of the spinal cord, causing weakness and loss of pain and thermal sensations below the injury site but preservation of proprioception that is usually carried in the posterior part of the spinal cord.

Tabes Dorsalis results from injury to the posterior part of the spinal cord, usually from infection diseases such as syphilis, causing loss of touch and proprioceptive sensation.

Conus Medullaris syndrome results from injury to the tip of the spinal cord, located at L1 vertebra.

Cauda Equina syndrome is, strictly speaking, not really spinal cord injury but injury to the spinal roots below the L1 vertebra.


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