2-Deoxy D-Glucose (2DG), a new oral anti-covid drug is developed by Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO). The Drug controller General of India (DCGI) had cleared the 2-DG for emergency use as adjunct therapy in moderate to severe coronavirus patients. It has proven to fasten the recovery of hospitalized patients, Thereby reducing medical oxygen dependence. There are no major side effects seen in the clinical trial.
Mode of action
2-DG accumulates in the virus infected cells, prevents viral growth by stopping viral synthesis and energy production and thus preventing the virus from replicating. Selective accumulation in virus cells has made this drug unique. Formerly 2-DG studied as a potential cancer treatment medication as it can kill cancer cells by blocking the supply of vital glucose molecule to them.
Glycolysis is cytoplasmic pathway where glucose molecule breaks down to form carbon compounds and generates energy. In glucolysis pathway, glucose is trapped by phosphorylation with the help of enzyme hexokinase. ATP is used here to produce glucose-6-phosphate that further inhibits hexokinase. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerizes to form Fructose-6-phosphate with the help of phosphofructoisomerase. This is step 2 of glycolysis pathway. 2-Deoxy D-glucose is glucose molecule where 2 hydroxyl group is replaced by hydrogen. It acts to competitively inhibit the production of Glucose-6-phosphate from Glucose at phosphofructoisomerase level. That is, Step 2 of glycolysis pathway. Thus cannot undergo further glycolysis. It hampers virus replication process.
Keywords- 2-DG, Glycolysis