Myocardial disease, Prevention and Detection in blood

Posted by Prabhu Sukumaran on Thu, Nov 2, 2023  
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Myocardial infarction

Many people are getting confused with the terminology of Heart attack with Myocardial infarction. In fact myocardial infarction is a disease since the heart muscle do not get enough oxygen supply for the relaxation and contraction in the heart and this process keeps on getting slow during the event.  Due to this slow process of the event the scar or necrosis occur in the muscle of the heart that leads to heart attack.

Explanation:

Many experimental studies have proved that ischemia of the heart muscle is the major reason for myocardial infarction. Cardiac muscle is a type of smooth muscle and their contraction, relaxation is supported by two proteins namely actin and myosin. These two proteins interact together for sliding filament mechanism of these muscles. These muscle cells also have their own mitochondria where the energy is generated for this muscular contraction and relaxation event. As well continuous oxygen supply is very important for the generation of ATP or Energy. Electron transport chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation are the biochemical events that transfer electrons in terms of Hydrogen transfer and simultaneous phosphorylation takes place in the event of chain reaction. Transfer of Hydrogen is done by various electron transporting components such as oxidising and reducing agents. During this oxidation reduction process inorganic phosphate is added with ADP to produce ATP energy. The final hydrogen acceptor of the electron transport chain attaches with oxygen of the blood of the cardiac muscle cells and at the end, one molecule of water is released with simultaneous production of ATP energy. This is called oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain. If the supply of oxygen from the blood of circulating cardiac muscle cells is blocked, then ATP will not be produced. Therefore this event causes slowing of cardiac muscle cells for relaxation and contraction as well as the process of actin and myosin protein filaments therefore sliding mechanism is also inhibited. Thus continuous lack of supply of oxygen to the cardiac muscle cells due to clotting or atherosclerosis would make the cardiac muscle cell as dead one and the repairing of cardiac muscle cells by any therapy or surgery would cause a scar or necrosis of the cardiac cells. Finally the chronic necrosis will lead to myocardial infarction.

Prevention

Myocardial infarction can be prevented by aerobic exercise, prevention of onset of obesity, atherosclerosis or blood clotting or formation of free radicals. Nutrition rich in antioxidants such as Vitamin C, B Complex Vitamins mainly Vitamin B12, Folic acid and Vitamin D3 are good for inhibition of free radicals. Similarly natural fruits, vegetables rich in essential fatty acids and essential amino acids are good for cardiac health. Organic fruits and vegetables cultivated without any insecticides or pesticides naturally contain the higher concentration of essential fatty acids and amino acids. Fruits rich in polyphenols, anthocyanin, xanthones, and flavonoids are good for prevention of myocardial infarction. Foods rich in omega 3 fatty acids are beneficial for heart muscle cells.

Cardiac Marker enzymes in Blood

LDH, CPK, SGOT & SGPT are marker enzymes released immediately in to the blood during the onset of myocardial infarction. Elevation of these enzymes in serum of the blood indicates the infarction has occurred in the myocardial cells.

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