Diabetes has to be taken care on daily basis in order to track its stages in the body. Diabetes can be managed on daily basis by testing the blood glucose levels and by handling the low as well as high blood glucose levels. The patient must be aware of the details of the complications that might occur from Diabetes.
Lifestyle alterations and Glucose monitoring at home
A person suffering from Diabetes has to choose the healthy dietary requirements as part of everyday diet, has to perform necessary exercises and has to follow other healthy habits to minimize the Diabetes complications and control the blood glucose levels.
Diet: Eating well-balanced diet consistently with high fiber content, low concentrated sweet and low saturated fats is essential to control the blood sugars. If the diet taken is consistent and at the same time every day with approximately the same calories every day, then the physician can prescribe the correct dosage of insulin or the medication.
Exercise: The physical activity can primarily decrease the chances for the diabetes to develop. Exercise can also reduce the risk for the development of Diabetic complications like blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, strokes and leg ulcers.
Walking for a minimum of three times per week has shown large benefits. Doing some exercise rather than not doing anything is an advantage for Diabetics. If the patient has any Diabetic complications like problems with eye, nerves and kidney, the extent of exercise and the type of exercise has to be carefully chosen so that the exercise will not worsen the diabetic complications further.
Alcohol: Consumption of alcohol more than one drink per day enhances the risk for the progression of type 2diabetes. Alcohol consumption might result in low or high blood sugar levels, nerve pain and increase in the triglyceride levels.
Smoking: If the person is suffering from Diabetes and is also smoking cigarettes then the risk of raising the complications of Diabetes will increase prominently. Smoking is known to cause damage to the blood vessels and might lead to heart diseases.
Glucose monitoring at home: Checking the blood glucose levels often or even daily and noting down the results in a dairy by the patient will turn out to be an invaluable help for the physician to evaluate the patient and prescribe a proper medicine to the patient. The latest equipment available in the market for glucose testing at home will enable the patients to successfully monitor the glucose levels daily at home.
The treatment of Diabetes using medications is unique for every individual depending on the type of diabetes that has affected the patient, the age of the patient, complications developed in the patient due to diabetes, and the general health of the patient.
Treatment of this type of diabetes usually involves giving insulin injection to the patient on daily basis. The injection normally is the combination of short acting insulin and long acting insulin. Insulin injections are given subcutaneously. Insulin cannot be taken by mouth as it gets digested before it reaches the blood. Usually, insulin injections are given for two to three times in a day especially during the meals time. Dosage is set according to the needs of the patient. The patient generally is taught to administer the injection on his own.
It is important to eat after taking insulin injections as insulin will lower the blood sugar levels very much, which is also called as insulin reaction. In an adjustment period, the patient will come to know the way insulin shows impact on his body. The exercise and meals are scheduled along with the insulin injections to balance the blood sugar levels.
Maintenance of the accurate records of the blood sugar levels and insulin dosages is very critical for the management of diabetes in the patients.
Depending on the blood sugar levels and glycosylated hemoglobin, the patient is suggested to change the lifestyle initially to lower the blood sugar instead of using medications. Exercise programs are advised for the patient to reduce weight if the person is obese. This is followed for about three to six months and then the sugar levels as well as glycosylated hemoglobin are checked again. If the blood sugar levels are higher then the patient will be given with the oral medications like metformin.
Even if the person is on medication, he or she has to be engaged in moderate physical activity, reduce weight in case of obese and follow eating healthy diet. The physician will monitor carefully the impact of the drug as well as its dosage on the blood glucose levels of the patient. The patient will be confirmed by the health care professional with the right dose and correct medication that is suitable for him. The drug with fewer side effects has to be prescribed.
The health care professional might prescribe two drugs in combination to control the blood glucose levels. The type 2diabetic patients also might require insulin injections to control their sugar levels. Most of the times these days, the type 2diabetic patients are taking insulin injections along with the oral medication.
There are several types of medications available to battle with Type 2Diabetes. A best drug can be chosen for an individual, which has fewer side effects.
The drug with Sufonylureas and Meglitinides as ingredients will be able to trigger the pancreas to secrete more insulin. Biguanides reduce the glucose production in the liver. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors reduce the starch absorption and hence slow down the synthesis of glucose. Thiazolidinediones enhance insulin sensitivity of the body. D-Phenylalanine derivatives trigger the pancreas to secrete the insulin more rapidly. Amylin synthetic derivatives maintain the balance in the blood sugar levels all through the day and improve the glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Incretin Mimetics administered along with the metformin and sulfonyl ureas when they are not sufficient to control the blood sugar levels. Human Insulin forms like Humulin-R, Insulin lispro, Insulin aspart, Insulin glulisine, prompt insulin zinc, Insulin glargine, and Insulin detemir are available.