Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects the respiratory , digestive and reproductive system caused by Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR ) gene.
Cystic Fibrosis inherits a defective gene in chromosome 7 called CFTR . Mutation in CFTR gene causes cystic fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis people have high amount of salt in the sweat. (View here for information on Cystic Fibrosis http://www.medindia.net/health-infographics/cystic-fibrosis.htm).
About 45% of people with CF are over 18 and rest are children. About 75 % people are diagnosed by age 2. People with CF have two inherited copies of defective gene. Every parents contribute two CFTR genes in a person. When a faulty CFTR gene inherits from both the parent to any child they develop Cystic Fibrosis.
There is no cure for CF; but it is treatable. Treatment includes providing adequate diet and nutritional, aerobic exercise helps loosen the mucus, chest clapping can be treated by chest physical therapy, pancreatic enzyme supplements helps improve the absorption of vital nutrients, inhale antibiotics to kill the bacteria that cause lung infections.
Healthy CFTR gene is inserted into the lung to correct the defective gene through gene therapy (treatment currently in clinical trials).